Conventional Graft Materials

Conventional Graft Materials

There are currently procedures to save or preserve bone, and there are a number of bone graft materials available to be used with these procedures in dentistry today. (Figure 1)

They include Autograft (Recipient’s Own Bone), Allograft (Bone from another Human Being), Xenograft (Bone from animal, usually porcine or bovine origins), Alloplast (synthetic grafting materials).

Recipient’s Own Bone

Autograft is obtaining of bone from the patient’s own body and typically is the gold standard grafting procedure available now.

Concerns: Autograft has its limitations, which include potential problems such as second surgical site and patient discomfort in terms of harvesting of a graft from another part of the patients body. It’s also a painful, complex and costly procedure for the patient.

Other Human Bone

Allograft is obtaining of bone graft materials from human cadavers.

Concerns: The disadvantage of allograft is that the bone graft materials may be rejected by the recipient’s immune system. Also there is chance of disease cross transmission.

Animal Bone

Xenograft is the obtaining of bone graft materials from tissue of animal origin, which includes bovine (cow’s bone) or porcine (pig’s bone)

Concerns : Similar to allograft, such bone graft materials may be rejected by the recipient’s immune system or pose concerns of potential disease transmission

Synthetic Bone

Alloplast are synthetic grafting materials used for grafting.

Concerns : They have limitations in terms of biocompatibility, resorption timing, local tissue reaction, and bone regeneration.

In the next post we shall look at how a new product, Alvelac™ can address the concerns of conventional graft materials.